A bilateral contract (also called a two-year contract) is a contract that exists exclusively between two state entities. It is an agreement between two parties, drawn up in writing and signed by representatives of the parties. Treaties can be substantive and complex, on a wide range of issues such as territorial boundaries, trade and trade, political alliances and much more. The agreement is then generally ratified by the legislative authority of each party or organization. [1] Any agreement with more than two parties is a multilateral treaty. Like a treaty, it is called a contract. As with any other contract, it is a written agreement that is typically formal and binding. [2] Bilateral agreements strengthen trade between the two countries. They open markets to successful sectors.

If companies take advantage of it, they create jobs. With regard to the legal nature of the bilateral agreements signed between ASEAN and China, opinions differ. Let us take the example of the ACFTA framework agreement; Some see it as a bilateral agreement between the two parties, namely China and ASEAN as a whole,57 while others see it as a multilateral treaty with 11 contracting parties.58 As the former scholar notes, the ambiguous legal personality and the division of ASEAN members into two groups do not detract from the bilateral nature of the agreement. Given that the treaty deals with extensive economic cooperation between ASEAN and China, it is clear that one of the parties is China, while the other parties are the ten ASEAN members who are taken in total59.59 The latter views the ACFTA framework agreement as a multilateral agreement signed by eleven national states and not as a „bilateral agreement“ between China and ASEAN. In its nature, it mainly contains bilateral commitments between China and the various ASEAN countries. This legal reality will have a profound impact on the application of contractual obligations and the use of the dispute resolution mechanism in the implementation of the ACFTA framework agreement60. Note that it is not the name (an agreement, a pact, a convention, etc.), but the content of an agreement between two parties that constitutes a bilateral treaty. The agreements between Egypt and Israel, signed in September 1978 by Camp David, the Geneva Protocol or the Biological Weapons Convention, are not examples.

[8] n. an agreement in which the parties exchange promises so that everyone can do something in the future.

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